By: Encep Supriatna
Indonesia University of Education
The Implementation of culture and religious-based history instruction at old Banten area (a transformative study on culture and religious values on history education in SMA.. Encep Supriatna, 2011).
The background of this study is the educational concern towards the Indonesian school students/young generation, who are being pulled back and forth, between their national identity and the external force of global culture. The Government tries to amend this situation by recommending to infuse character building into teaching and learning. History is the ideal subject to instill nationalism and patriotism among the student, beside to teach the past and the common heritage of their nation, and therefore suitable to the Government intention.
Banten, formerly a western part of the West Java Province, now a self governing new province, during the 17th and 19th century had her own glorious history of kingdoms. It was from these periods that Banten inherited her own political and cultural identities and values different from other provinces in Indonesia.
To discover whether these identities and values are still maintained among the students/young generation’s life’s today, this research is conducted working together with the High school students from SMAN I, II, and III Serang particularly in the area of old Banten (Banten Lama), their teachers and Headmasters, using the naturalistic inquiry method. To gather the data, attending and observing the history classes and the extra curriculum activities are the most important source, supported by the interviews with the key informants, and the use of their daily educational document. Observations are conducted also to gather data from the cultural events among the population of the surrounding areas, among those are the celebration of the Prophet’s Birthday (Maulud Nabi), which are still strongly uphold by these peoples.
The result of the study showed, that although the students are still following their family’s instruction in Islamic religious values and ethnic cultural values, they have also to prepare themselves to face their impending future, to study or to work in a modern society. The national curriculum (KTSP) prepare them to adjust and to combine the basic and the more pragmatic education for their time to come.
Key Words: Religious and cultural values, teaching history education, high school students, naturalistic inquiry, and modernity.
As a study, history has never been static. For centuries, history has come up with several definitions. As Topolski proposed, history is defined into three definitions: 1) history as past events; 2) history as a research done by a historian; and 3) history as an implication of the research. The last two definitions support that history is a part of science. However, the definitions of history keep changing as the reflection of the past events and the development of history as a reconstruction result change (Topolski, 1976: 53-55). Along with that, Laue (1981:23) suggested that the core of future history education which globally used was the education that (1) focused on global history/universal, not on neither national nor local history; (2) developed sense of moral to raise human’s loyalty; and (3) created better next generations.
Based on the two theories above, it finally creates a question, how do the existence of student’s identities in the global life if they only learn global history? This finally becomes a dilemma in current history education. In one side, history education is expected to bring the students to the global life that it should always refer to the global history, while in another side, history is also to create national identities among the students life through the lesson of national history, in order that they have established identities in the global life. In fact, we still need national history as a basis and resource of a nation power. Global history might become a megatrend in the history education, but we can realize that global history is the advancement of knowledge instead of as a substitution.
It means, for our nation, Indonesia, national history is a media to maintain its integrity symbols and an ideal power as a nation which has an important role in the future but not to neglect the existence of global history or local history. Realizing on that fact, we need to revitalize the values of local histories. For that reason, the researcher will conduct a research on “the implementation of teaching history education based on religious and cultural values in old Banten”, a transformative study of the religious and cultural values-based instruction in Senior High School. This research is conducted based on the fact that there is a competition between religious life and secular one, as well as between maintaining local culture and global life which has come to the nation. It surely makes the students wonder which values they have to adopt.
According to R.G. Collingwood (1956), in his book ”The Idea of History” states that, ”History is something from a historian point of view, there is no such events but go through them to get the meaning and values in it.” In history, there is no certain either generalization or prediction of the future. A historian cannot argue certain principal or rules that enable him to predict the past events are taking place for second time. In the other side, R.G. Collingwood (in Sjamsuddin, 2007) states that historical research is a research on human’s activities in the past. Rickman (in Robinson, 1912: xi-xii) argues that, ”history relates to several events which have each uniqueness.” while other science relate to the occurance frequence of events, and they can be generalized based on their laws. James Harvey Robinson argued, ”History is all things we know about every human did, thought, or felt” (Robinson, 1912: xi-xii).
History instruction is the instruction which teach the students history materials, so taht they can: (a) understand about history, in the sense of they know and understand about the past events, they have critical thinking, they can analyze every information and changes come from their society, (b) have local values identities, it means they spend their time with meaningful activities, tey have understanding on changes, and have the ability to identify the values within history, and (c) have knowledge on history with local values-based.
In this research we are as a researchers using the qualitative approach. In qualitative approach many type are etnography, case study, fhenomenologhy grounded reserach, and combinated wiht the educational research why? Because for implementation the history education end senior high school. A values of religion and culture are used by a teacher during the classroom studies.
Toget a data resercher use a tehnique by, observation, interviewing, and document study (Creswell, 1998: 15). For analyzing the data’s resercher use a theory from Miles un Huberman are: (1) Data reduction, Display, Verification and (4) Conclusion (Huberman, 1994: 40).
FINDING AND DISCUSSIONS
To gather the data about the present condition of teaching and learning history at SMA, the researcher also interviewed the history teacher at SMAN 2 Serang, Nengsih Husaeni, S.Pd. The result showed that, (1) Basically, students have good interest in learning history whenever their teacher provide an interesting ways and materials. Interesting means teacher, in every presentation, always use teaching and learning media which is appropriate with the materials. (2) In history instruction, teachers apply various teaching methods such as questions-response and discussion that allow the students to explore the material more so that they can be more active.
To perform the prosesss of teaching and learning history which is close to students context, (1) Teachers usually ask them to do a direct observation, for example they bring the students to Old Banten sites in Kasemen. By doing the observation to Kasemen, students are expected to get comprehensive understanding on the evidence of Banten kingdom and its authority which we still can see now. Among the evidence are Old Banten Mosque, Banten tower (2) By visiting Old Banten sites, students are expected to be able to respect and be proud of what their town has. (3) students are also to realize and understand more about the religious and cultural values in Banten. (4) Banten, as one of the nation entity, also has its own culture which is different from other cultures. For example, the culural value which has religious meaning of ”panjang mulud” and ”debus” which means Banten people power.
Based on the result of interview with one of the history teachers in SMAN 1 Serang, Yudi Yuriansyah, S,Pd., about the values of religion and culture which might be performed and transformed from history of Old Banten area, showed that the values are:
(1) local wisdom
(2) heroic values, and
(3) domination of ulama roles and Islamic life
While the interview result with Sutrisno Harmedi, S.Pd., a teacher at SMAN 3 Taktakan-Serang, indicated that the religios and cultural values that can be transformed in history instructions are:
(1) Religious spirit,
(2) Loyality to Islam,
(3) Religious days celebration, and
(4) welcoming son/daughter celebration.
In addition, interview with Siti Khodijah, S.Pd., a history lecturer at SMAN 2 Serang (conducted in October 6, 2010) stated that religious values revealed in the history instruction are:
(1) Religious value and heroic values
(2) The celebration of religion days, such as panjang Mulud,
(3) Culture value, like debus
Prof.Dr. Tihami, M.A., rector of IAIN ”SMH” Banten, in the interview explains that cultural values can be specifically defined as arts which are still exist in Banten, such as: rampak bedug, Terbang gede, qosidah, saman, yalil, patingtung, rudat, pencak silat, and dzikir saman, angklung buhun, dog-dog lojor, bendrong lesung, beluk, kuda lumping, gambang kromong , tari cokek. For further explanation, they can bee seen in the following table.
Tabel 1. Examples of Bantenese cultural art
NNo. Banten Cultural arts Examples
11 Traditional arts has been exist from beginning of entering Islamic religion until kingdom of Islam was established Rampak Bedug, Terebang Gede, Qasidah, Saman,Yalil;
22 Traditional art was influence patriotic soul with Islamic culture Debus, Patingtung dan Rudat;
33 Traditional art including to oldest culture in Banten, because was borned as Islam was came, or before Islam religion come to districted of Banten. Angklung Buhun, Dog-dog Lojor, Bendrong Lesung, Beluk dsb;
44 Traditional art has come from out of Banten area, with processing the culture acculturation. Kuda Lumping, Gambang Kromong, Cokek dsb.
Source: Interview with Prof.Dr. Tihami, M.A. & Profile of Banten cultural art
Related to art, there is also identified an old art which is still maintained, except its performance. Among them are:
Tabel. 2. Aspects of history instruction with culture-based
No. Cultural Aspect Descritions
1. Debus surosowan Its was according to magic performance with sholawatan
2. Debus pusaka paku Banten Its was refres to magic performance too
3. Seni rudat Sounds and Voice aspect
4. Seni Terbang Gede Sounds and Voice aspect
5. Seni Patingtung Sounds and Voice aspect
7. Seni Saman Praying and be upon to profet Muhammad
8. Seni Angklung buhun (Baduy) Sound and voic aspect with bamboo
9. Seni Beluk Sound and art
10. Seni Wawacan Syekh Reading the Barzanzi and pray to profet Muhamamd
11. Seni Kasidahan Sounds and voice aspect
12. Seni Marhaban Reading Barzanzi
13. Seni Dzikir Mulud Pray to Prefet Muhammad
14. Seni Terbang Genjring Sound and vioce aspect
15. Seni Bendrong lesung The voice of lesung
16. Seni Gacle Atractions and voice
17. Seni Buka pintu (marhaban) Pray to profet Muhammad with Barzanzi
18. Seni Tari wewe/genderuwo Atractions and songs
19. Seni Adu bedug/rampak bedug Voice of Bedug with people
Source: Profile of Banten Cultural art, 2003 and interview with Wawancara Mr. Ruby A. Baedhowi.
Banten is well-known with its religious society. However, in the other side we can find other society’s behavior that has sincerity believes. This because Banten people like to maintain their former traditions (read: Hindu-Budha). This belives have even been internalized into the daily life. Not only traditional Banten people who combine old and new believes, modern society are also still believe to magical thing (Frazer, 1932). He further states that man solve their problems with their brain and the system of knowledge. Since there is limitation on human’s brain and knowledge, they finally use magic and myth.
We hape known that any time no one of cultural aspect not influence with nather cultural, according to theory of diffusion that any cultur in the worl influence one and nother inckudung cultural heritage in Indonesia country. There for to existence the cultural heritage of Indonesia many principal or supporting exist the cultural heritage bellow:
1. Banten cultural must be transference to young generation in Banten province and attended with any event of cultural like panjang mulud ect.
2. The old values must be transform with new spirit by analizing, and infusing the bigesst space for developing with new era in the globalization accelerated by new spirit modernization in order to entering the new era, in history concept we called with (zeidgeist). Tehere for, we created end build the new aspect of cultur for social change and we need the (creatif minority) as well as (agent of social change).
According to the result of research we cant finding a conclusion that the implemmentation of teaching history education based on religion and culture in senior high school a bove:
First, the process of teaching and learning history that is employed by teachers has currently good, it is indicated by the interview result conducted to the students. The teaching and learning process is interesting and even fun. While others said they still do not understan what the teaechers explain. However, it still needs some other inovations in the teaching presentation.
During the class, the teacher also apply various method, like discussion, question and answer, and contekstual learning. Teachers are also expected to select the materials which cover local content. Moreover, they are also expected to use the teaching method which enable the students to actively get involved in the instruction, and expose more the teaching media. In the end of the instruction, the teacher also do the evaluation orally and in written. In the case of history instruction which based on cultural and religious values, teacher always begin the class with praying first. In every teachers’ desk, there provided the Holy Qur’an, in order that teacher can always relate the materials with the Islamic values.
Second, the result of observations as well as interviews in the study of religious dealing with values and culture can be extracted and transformed from the history of the area of Banten Lama such as (1) the values of religious and heroism, (2) religious fervor as well as the diversity of cultural traditional ceremonies, such as Panjang Mulud, memorial day ceremonies of the Islamic, salvation ceremony, and the grave pilgrimage to the tomb which is considered to have “karomah”. Judging from its religious, religion system of Banten Lama are elements in religious ceremonies. Islam as the official religion of the palace and the whole area of the Sultanate of Banten, in ceremonies has its own system, which includes equipment ceremony, participants of the ceremony, and the ceremony itself. For example in the prayer ceremony, there will be many equipment such as the mosque, bedug, tongtong, tower, sanctuary, padasan (pekulen), and others. Similarly there are the culprits such as imam, ma’mum, muadzin, dress, etc.; until later ordinances ceremony.
In an age of empire, imam as master of ceremonies was the Emperor himself prayed that the transformation and then handed over to qodi. In a change with no Sultan, then move over to the religious ceremony chaplain. Further development could be changed due to the transformation of roles that occurs, whereas at present can be seen in Panjang Mulud and others. Viewed from the aspect of culture that is still strong there, such as: (1) Traditional Arts which is very thick colored life and development of Islamic religion, such as: Rampak Bedug, Terebang Gede, Qasidah, Saman, Yalail, (2) Traditional Arts which is a marriage of the Banten patriotic societies with Islamic culture, such as: Debus, Patingtung, and Rudat, (3) Traditional Arts which is an old Banten culture, which according to the history of Islam was born with or prior to the arrival of Islam in Punjab, such as: Angklung Buhun, Dog-dog Lojor, Bendrong Lesung, Beluk etc., and (4) Traditional Art that comes from outside Jakarta undergoing a process of acculturation such as: Kuda Lumping, Gambang Kromong, Cokek, etc.
Third, implementation of teaching history based on religious values and culture which is a study of transformative religious values and culture in the history of education in high school, by the way male and female students who learn about the historical materials relating to local history pass up study and direct observation to name objects of cultural heritage sites were Banten, by way of direct observation to the existing cultural heritage sites around the neighborhood students or it could be a way of integrating subject matter contained in books or in the curriculum to the current context or task by giving up papers, before they were asked to make observations to specific places. To hold observations and studies is done with four stages, namely (1) Phase orientation in which the teacher provides guidance to students about what they should do on the site location is located, (2) Phase formulation of the problem and the selection of materials and materials teaching and learning resources, making the data collection instruments included the selection of themes that should be sought and dug by students in the field, (3) the implementation stage, at this stage the teacher as mentor and student as learners directly go to the field to observe the objects contained in objects of cultural sites such Banten, and finally (4) Phase preparation of reports, at this stage students are asked to perform compile the results of activities in the field in the form of paper, which consists of Introduction, content and conclusions. By taking directly to the field then students can appreciate and preserve local culture as part of national culture.
Fourth, the role of teaching history by using the values of Religions and Cultures in the Region Banten Lama and its actualization in the everyday life of students at various schools. Based on the observations of researchers in the field for SMA N 2 Kota Serang actualization of religious values in daily life of students is with the holding of habituation dzikr asmaul husna, and tausiah given twice a week on Wednesday and Friday in the school yard before entering the classroom for 45 minutes. By integrating Imtak materials in all subject matter is not only religious instruction. Still related to the impact or role of the actualization of cultural values in the form of insight and understanding to students about the importance of preservation of cultural heritage sites, learn, understand and develop and pass it to generations to come.
Impact or influence that is felt by the teachers with the actualization of the values of religion and culture in everyday life, especially in the establishment of school students who have a character figure, which is an independent student, noble character, praying on time, keep clean, respect for the teacher, has properties that honest and responsible. In addition, in one of the schools that are being used as well by way of embedded research include honest, responsible, visionary, discipline, cooperation, fair and estuary care of it all is that the students who drop out of school is known as a student who has the moral well and was in accordance with religious messages based on the Qur’an and hadist, in short to bring students who have the character to be based on religious values and spiritual.
Beside, results also showed the majority of students still following the family tradition and beliefs based on religious values and cultural area of Banten, they also have to prepare themselves to engage in the community based on values that they believe but there are also some students who have abandoned the tradition of cultural and religious values are. This is reflected in the behavior of a hedonistic life, consumerism, no longer heeding manners, values and norms that have been set in a school environment where they learn. Indeed with the enactment of the national curriculum (KTSP) can prepare them for the decision in combining basic needs and also the pragmatic need for their lives in the future, so do not leave one of them between idealism and pragmatism of worldly needs.
Teachers are the spearhead in the learning process. No matter how good curriculum and complete as any existing facilities at the school, if teachers are not capable of learning to package it well, then the process of learning in particular subjects of history that took place in a less interesting and boring. For that there are a few suggestions that should be done by teachers are as follows.
First: Before teachers are doing the learning process, teachers should make various preparations since the creation of lesson plans, selection of materials, making props, and perform an evaluation at the end of learning. The results at one school, SMA N 1 Serang city the use of multimedia learning is given a large portion of the allocation of learning time.
Second, teachers in the learning process should also apply various methods such as methods, discussion, contextual, frequently asked questions, field observation, and assignments (projects) that allows students to engage actively in the learning process so that students will better understand of the material submitted by the teacher.
Third, in certain moments the teacher can also invite students to undertake learning outside the classroom, especially on subjects that require direct experience of the field, such as history, students are invited to study tour and direct observation of the existence of objects of cultural heritage sites of the region each one.
Fourth, in the learning process teachers should insert the element values of the local religion and culture on any instructional material should not be on religious subjects only, because by inserting religious values are expected to instill good character education on students, resulting in self-actualization of students is reflected in the behavior of an honest attitude, fairness, caring, responsible, respectful and courteous, or (noble).
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Interview with Mr. Dr. Ali Fadilah bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Mr. Drs. Deni Arif Hidayat, M.Pd. bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Mrs. Negsih Husaeni, S.Pd. bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Mrs. Siti Khodijah, S.Pd. bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Mr. Yudi Yuriansyah, S.Pd., bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Mr. Sutrisne Harmedi, S.Pd., bulan Oktober 2009
Interview with Students Senior Hihg School 1, 2 dan 3 Serang city yaitu: Maya Nurkholida, Qhistiya Sukma Nazhira, Rinaldi, Devy Solihati, Yuniar, Dian Nur Azizah, Tatu Kholisoh, pada bulan November 2009.
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